The prostate gland is a glandular tissue found in males, and it is present at the bottom of the bladder. It is a part of the male genital tract and produces 30% of the total seminal fluid. Seminal fluid is the fluid in which the sperm floats. It is composed of different fluids coming from different glands entering at different points in the male genital tract. Each component is equally important to provide nutrition to the sperms and keep the sperms alive for fertilization.
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Surgical Anatomy of Prostate Gland
The prostate gland is found between the urinary bladder base and a urogenital diaphragm, which is a muscular sheet that forms the base of the pelvic cavity. This sheet also forms the distal sphincter, regulating the flow of urine or seminal fluid entering the urethra.
The gland encapsulates the urethra and is divided into five lobes depending on its relationship with the urethra. The anterior lobe is in front of the urethra, and the posterior lobe is at its back. The central lobe lies between the urethra and the ejaculatory ducts. The right lobe and left lobe are found on the right and left side of the urethra, respectively.
Since it is glandular tissue, the gland’s ducts open at the inner back wall of the urethra and enter the penile tract.
Location of Cancer And BPH
We can also divide the prostate gland based on its zones. The central zone lies behind the urethra and above the ejaculatory ducts. The transitional zone, also called the periurethral zone, is located more in front of the urethra and around it. It is the most common site for Benign Prostate Hyperplasia (BPH). Then comes the peripheral zone, which lies on the gland’s periphery. It is the most common site for prostatic cancer because the highest number of glands are found here.
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What Are the Functions of Prostate in Health and Disease?
The normal function of the gland is to produce a component of seminal fluid. It is also acted upon by a male hormone called testosterone. Testosterone is converted into DHT(Di Hydro Testosterone) by the enzyme 5-alpha reductase, and this hormone is found in high concentrations in the prostate.
DHT is a five times more potent form of testosterone; hence it plays a major role in forming an abnormal condition called Benign Prostate Hyperplasia.
Benign Prostate Hyperplasia (BPH) refers to a non-malignant enlargement of the prostate gland. It is the most common cause of bladder outflow obstruction. When it comes to the BPH treatment, patients can opt for medical or surgical treatment procedures. With the advance in drug treatment number of patients needing surgical intervention has reduced drastically.
While benign prostate hyperplasia is a benign condition, prostatic carcinoma is the most common malignant tumor found in men, especially those above the age of 65 years. As discussed earlier, prostatic cancer originates in the peripheral zone of the prostate. Benign prostatic hyperplasia and and Prostatic cancer when palapable can be differentiated during a digital rectal examination.
Anatomical Change After Radical Prostatectomy
Radical prostatectomy is a treatment of choice for localized prostatic cancer. It is carried out only in men with a life expectancy of greater than ten years. The entire prostate, the seminal vesicles, and the distal sphincter are removed in this procedure.
After radical prostatectomy, the bladder neck is attached to the urethra to re-establish the urinary tract’s continuity normal flow.
Disclaimer: This blog post is provided for informational purposes and is not intended to replace the guidance of your personal physician. Please consult a medical professional if you have any concerns after reading this or other blog posts on this